Sunday, April 29, 2012

Eating Big 101

Everyone in this photo deadlifts over 400kg

 Article written by Marshall White for

STOP!!!  Before you read any further go get something to eat.   If you have time to sit here and read this you can eat while you’re reading.  You and I both know a peanut butter and jelly sandwich is exactly what you need right now.

In my opinion most athletes aren’t eating enough food.  I already know someone is going to say “but Marshall, yesterday I ate 37 pieces of pizza at a buffet!” and I applaud you for that but what did you do the rest of the day?  How about the rest of the week?  Strength athletes seem to take so much pride in what they can eat in one sitting without giving too much thought to consistency in their diets.  Eating big isn’t only about “that one time” you had a huge meal, it’s about eating becoming as important if not more so than your training.   

Do you miss training sessions?  If not why would you miss a meal?  Don’t say you’re too busy to eat!  If you’re too busy to eat then stop bitching about being small and go ahead and accept that being massive isn’t in the cards for you!  Eating big has to be a priority and I realize that can take some work so here are some tips that I have picked up that help me consume more food in my day.  Don’t worry I’m not going to tell you the same old “cook ahead of time” that you’ve heard a million times before.

1. Start eating out of bowls.  That’s right eating out of a bowl makes your life easier by combining all your food into one neat and tidy little package of “getting big”.  Combine your entire meal into a bowl, if necessary use a pair of scissors to cut the meat into small pieces, and then use a spoon to eat.  A spoon is basically a mini shovel and works wonders at getting your food in quick.

2. Put little snacks EVERYWHERE in your life.  Is there beef jerky in your car?  How about some pistachios in your desk or tool box at work?  If you put snacks everywhere in your life you won’t have any excuse to not eat.  Will people look at you funny when you pop open some jerky in the middle of class?  Yes, but they’ll look at you even funnier when you’re a freaky mass of muscley muscle so you might as well go ahead and get used to it.

3. Stop trying to be a bodybuilder.  In my opinion most athletes are secretly wannabe bodybuilders.  If you are an athlete and you are eating correctly you will look like an athlete.  Bodybuilders don’t look like athletes, they look like bodybuilders.  Low carbs and no sugar isn’t for athletes.  I’m not saying eat super sloppy and get ultra fat, I’m saying that extremely low carbs aren’t going to get you to a 200kg clean and jerk.

4. Accept that eating big is not going to be cheap.  If you prioritize eating big though you can just replace other things in your life with food.  3 years ago I started ordering 2 entrees at restaurants, while this is expensive I just started cutting out other things in my life that were lower priority that eating big.  I don’t need to buy beer; I don’t need lattes, etc.  Find a way to eat big.  Take up hunting, grow a garden, raise some chickens, pose as a homeless person and put it down on a soup kitchen, etc.

5. Stop acting like a shake is going to get you big!  Protein shakes serve a purpose for athletes when added to a meal.  Outside of that they are low calorie milk shakes that don’t do you much good if any at all.  To get big you need to eat tons and tons of whole food. Embrace rice, chicken, ground beef, potatoes and oatmeal like they are your best friend and you will see so many more gains than that dumbass shake you’ve been sucking on like your mom’s tit.  (if you are blending up whole foods and drinking them to be able to consume more calories then that is ok)

6. Last but most importantly you should eat like whatever it is you want to become.  If you are 175lbs but want to be a 250lb monster you need to eat like you already weigh 250.  Ladies this means you to, if you’re an athlete you should know by now that what you weigh has nothing to do with what you look like.  Step it up and eat big to add the muscle that will ultimately give you the physique you want.  “But Marshall I have to make weight!”  Fine, but realize that if you are going to reach your true strength potential you will eventually have to add more muscle and go up in weight classes.

There ya go.  Just a few tips that will hopefully help you in the pursuit of moving big weight.  Always keep in mind how important eating actually is for athletes, your diet is going to fuel world class performances.  Make eating big a priority and I promise you will see yourself doing things you never thought possible. 

Marshall in action

Marshall White has been a pro strongman for 6 years and has competed in over 40 competitions domestically and internationally. He is currently  330lbs and is one of the top Strongmen competing today. He once killed a man to see what his insides looked like.

Friday, April 27, 2012

Talking To Your Athlete

As Chow, Miles and I head to the meet this weekend, I thought I would post a few wise words passed on to me from more qualified coaches on how to talk to your athletes in training and competition.

A wise man once told me that USAW sports psychologists used to think that an athlete could hear about seven words before they lost focus on what was being said and began to over-analyze themselves. Now, sports psychologists believe an athlete can hear roughly seven syllables. This means that cues like" Ok when you get out there I want you to keep your chest big while driving your knees out and sweeping the bar in. Oh and stack your bones" are not doing your athlete any good and can contribute to a failed lift.  I have seen this with the new lifters I train at Seattle U, more than a few syllables and their eyes start to glaze over like donuts and their technique goes down the toilet.

A better approach to coaching cues would be to discuss errors in the athlete’s technique when they are off the platform, and come up with simple, one-syllable cues for you to say while they are lifting. If they have a problem with caving knees in the clean, simply yell KNEES! If their heels come up, just yell HEELS!

The platform is for lifting. Not for thinking, not for talking, not for doubt

Paralysis By Analysis is a common occurrence for new lifters and it is the coach’s responsibility to keep this from happening. All thinking and analysis should already have taken place before the meet. Technique errors should be hammered out as much as possible leading up to the two weeks before the meet. The night before the meet and the day of should be spent in quiet reflection, constantly visualizing successful lifts. This will help your athlete to leave all their thinking back in the training facility and let their hours of practice take over on the platform.

Best of luck to Chow and Miles, they have trained hard and it’s time to have some fun this weekend. 

Grip it & rip it!


Tuesday, April 24, 2012

The Superiority of Eggs

It's no secret that we here at LIFT BIG EAT BIG consume copious amounts of eggs on a weekly basis. Best served with a large side of bacon and avocado, we consider eggs to be the best breakfast food you can lay your grubby little hands on.

A dozen eggs can be purchased for as little as $2.99, which equals out to roughly 25 cents per egg, making it one of the cheapest quality protein sources you can find. Keep in mind that at $2.99, you probably won't be getting pastured, organic eggs, but this isn't a perfect world and sometimes you have to decide whether to buy the pastured eggs or pay the school loans.

At the most elementary nutritional level, eggs are a superior breakfast food because they contain 6-8 grams of protein and 220mg of cholesterol, making it a nutritional powerhouse for anyone who is interested in making strength gains.

On a more in-depth level, eggs also provide all 9 essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals, and an exhaustively long list of other nutrients that you didn't even know you needed. Things like Choline, Lutein+Zeaxanthin, and linoleic acid. This link outlines the entire chemical ingredient list of an egg, quite impressive, I must say.

 The egg has been chastised in recent decades for its high cholesterol content, being accused of contributing to heart disease, but most readers of LBEB know that this is a myth. On the contrary, cholesterol consumption has repeatedly been shown to improve cardiovascular health, as well as directly contribute to healthy hormone levels in men and women.

Many bodybuilders and general followers of the Tracey Anderson Method continue to advocate the throwing away of the egg yolk, as it contains cholesterol.  What they are missing out on is arguably more important than the very important protein of the egg white, the dark, rich yolk that contains the cholesterol. As a waxy steroid of fat, it is a precursor to the production of testosterone, and as such, the yolk should be the part of the egg that is most sought after. Testosterone levels in men and women are so low in recent years that doctors have actually lowered "normal" levels to cope with this nation-wide drop.

Some popular cereal brands tout their products as a superior breakfast food because they "contain as much protein as an egg", yet they also come with 13g of sugar, 8g of whole grains, and a serving of soy protein. You know what else contains as much protein as an egg, without all of the added junk? AN EGG.

Next time you are trying to figure out what to have for breakfast, ditch the low-fat banana smoothie and whole wheat toast, and instead reach for 3-4 eggs and a side of bacon. Unless you want to stay looking like Gwyneth Paltrow.

Sunday, April 22, 2012

Keeping the Heels Down

Notice the loafers

Article written by Jay Stadtfeld for

Whenever I coach a client one of the first movements they learn is the squat. I have them show me how they think a squat should be performed before fixing it. One of the most common things I witness is them popping up onto their toes instead of sitting back on their heels. It may be a mobility thing (and in some it is), but it could also be something more. Nevertheless, once they learn how to squat and keep their heels on the ground, it improves and often they comment it feels better.

The reasons for this are numerous, but the largest one is hamstring tension, especially for a low bar squat and deadlift. When you raise onto your toes, you're effectively taking hamstring tension away, and forcing the quadriceps to take the brunt of the work. Mark Rippetoe illustrates this in his second edition of Starting Strength when he says, “If your hips go forward, your knees will too, causing the weight to shift forward.. This is bad for power, because anytime the knee angle closes, the hamstrings have been shortened at the distal end... and have been removed as a power source.”

For example, let's take an old squat called the “Sissy” squat versus the “low bar” squat.

The Sissy squat is known for its quadricep building ability, and can be seen on the left. As you can see, the individual in the picture (aside from his sweet Richard Simmons-esque shorts) has allowed his heels to come off the floor in favor of the knees tracking far beyond the toes, taking tension off the hamstrings. Thus, obviously turning this into a interesting flexibility movement, but also a quadricep dominant exercise. Now, compare that to the low bar squat on the right, and you'll see that the bar is put over the center of gravity, and tension remains on the hamstrings due to the heels on the floor, thus allowing heavier weights to be used. This angle may change when utilizing the “high bar” squat that Olympic lifter prefer due to its position that mimics the Front and OH squat, but the idea remains the same: Tension on hamstrings results in big weight being used.

Since a majority of us on this website are strength athletes, or at the very least care about being stronger, it makes sense that we'd want the latter of the two images to be us.

This applies especially to the deadlift. Perhaps more so than the squat, even. In your set up, the bar should be placed over the mid foot, then you bend over and your shins touch. The rest I'm sure you know well. I'm sure if you've ever done a deadlift, you'll experience when the bar shifts away from your center of gravity. It shouldn't happen, but it does. Now, imagine setting up with your heels off the floor and trying to pull that way. The weight would already be out in front of your center of gravity, hamstring and most posterior chain tension would be relaxed, and the deadlift would turn into more a circus act than it would a safe, effective exercise for strength.
If you see someone squatting or deadlifting (admittedly, I have never seen the deadlift bit in action), stop them immediately if you're a coach. If you're not, and you train in a commercial gym, you could always just sit back and watch as their knees or spine explode like a frag grenade. And as always, wear your helmet just in case.

  •             Rippetoe, Mark, and Lon Kilgore. Starting Strength Basic Barbell Training. 2nd ed. Sted: Aasgaard, 2011. Print.

Monday, April 16, 2012

The Valsalva Maneuver

You're in the squat rack. 500 pounds on the bar, constructed of five 45 pound plates per side, and that silly 2.5 plate. You walk over to tighten your belt to that second to last notch, throw chalk on your hands, and get your training partner to chalk your back. You know you're going to nail it as you walk up and place your hands on the cold knurling of the iron. You get under the bar and pop it out, except you forget one crucial part as you descend. You forgot to take a big belly of air and you fail the lift as the bar crashes into the safeties.

If you're not angry reading that, you're doing it wrong. I mean, really. Do you even lift? The Valsalva maneuver (what constitutes a maneuver above an action, anyway?) is something you may do without having ever thought about it. Bending down to lift a stone and inhaling so as to protect your spine is just a normal movement, or so one would think. Though, quite often you'll see people breathing improperly during exercise. This article is here to put the kabosh on that.

The Valsalva maneuver is defined as, “a moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway...” and, in action, it's literally that. You're essentially packing air into the gut and forcing it against a closed glottis. Before you start pondering, “What the hell's a glottis?” it's best to understand  when the maneuver is performed. It should always be before the descent of the bar in both the squat and bench press, but before the ascent of the bar before the deadlift and press.

According to this graph at, you can see that during phase I of the Valsalva maneuver, the Aortic pressure takes a large spike, while the heart rate will plummet. This is largely due to the increase of air which forces the organs into the rib cage, and conversely increases pressure on the walls of the heart and compresses the vessels. Phase II does the inverse of that, with a decrease of Aortic pressure, and an increase in heart rate. 

This is typically where the descent/ascent of the lift would begin. Cardiac output begins to fall, causing the Aortic pressure to fall with it. As the lift is at the end (phase III and IV), Aortic pressure hits is lowest point, while the heart rate begins to peak again as the air is released and circulated back through the body, which then causes it to spike again as pressure is allowed back into the atrium of the heart.

Too long? Too technical? Need a Cliffnote? Your body is intelligent and knows what to do when you fill your gut with air and push it out into a belt.

The increase in intra-abdominal pressure prevents your body from folding like a lawn chair, allowing you to move heavy weights more efficiently. If you're not using a belt while training, I suggest you get one. If you are using one, make sure you're using it to it's full potential. Breathe deep, push your belly out (lifting heavy shit isn't pretty, don't make it so), and keep that air in until you complete the lift. Or else suffer my wrath. Yeah, I'll come to where you are and punch you in the gut just to make sure you're doing it right. Or maybe I won't. I dunno, but why take that chance?

 Article written By Jay Stadtfeld for

Klabunde, Richard E. "Hemodynamics of a Valsalva Maneuver." CV Physiology: Valsalva. 15 Apr.           2007. Web. 15 Apr. 2012. <>.

Sunday, April 15, 2012

Onion & Garlic for Increased Testosterone

I ran into some interesting information while helping out at the USAW certification course this past weekend, specifically regarding theories on increasing testosterone levels without using illicit substances.

The first theory was regarding a study that was conducted at the Tabriz University in Iran. According to some sources, many men who suffer from fertility issues in Iran cannot afford the medical treatments necessary to increase fertility and testosterone production, so their scientists went to work on find alternative methods. Another source stated that high levels of antioxidants have been known to increase testosterone levels, since onions contain high levels of antioxidants they quickly became  the substance that would be used in the trials. Scientists conducted the study with rats, using a juicer to create onion juice that was fed directly into the stomach of rats via a tube. I am not sure how a poor citizen of Iran is supposed to afford a juicer if they can't afford simple medical treatment, but that is another story in itself.

The results were nothing short of impressive; over a 300% increase in serum testosterone levels after 20 days for the group of rats that were given 1 gram of raw onion juice per kilogram of bodyweight. LH, FSH and overall sperm quality was increased in the blood for this group as well. It has been stated that in 1967 an Egyptian researcher found that an intake of onion juice increased the testes in lab animals, although I have been unable to find this research myself.

While these results are astounding, and make me want to carry a gallon of onion juice with me at all times, how much of a carry-over there is for humans has not been fully researched. The onion juice was given to the rats directly into their stomachs via a tube, bypassing the normal digestive system. It is unknown whether digestive enzymes would affect the raising of testosterone levels from onion juice. It is also important to note that most readers of LBEB are not lab rats, and are not men from Iran suffering from infertility issues. Most of us have high levels of testosterone already due to our diet and training programs. Still, drinking 1 gram of onion juice per kilogram of bodyweight seems like a great way to test your testicular/ovarian fortitude.

The stinking rose

The second theory discussed was the role of garlic and its ability to increase testicular testosterone when supplemented along with a high cholesterol & protein diet. Different groups of rats were fed casein diets, one group being supplemented with garlic powder and one without any supplementation. The group that was supplemented with garlic powder was discovered to have significantly higher testosterone contents in the testes with decreased corticosterone concentration when compared with the garlic-free group after 28 days. The garlic-free group was fed corn oil which is cholesterol-free, which could have influenced the results, since cholesterol is a precursor to testosterone production.

Although this data indicates that garlic consumption can greatly increase testosterone production, it is important to remember that the studies were conducted on rats, not humans. I would recommend experimentation with both onion juice and garlic supplementation to see if your own testosterone levels are raised, but I would hardly expect to see a 300% increase in an already healthy, strong individual. I may experiment with the onion juice myself as I head into my first week of the Smolov squat program.


Monday, April 9, 2012

Fish Oil

Fish oil. Apparently the greatest thing known to mankind other than squats, of course. And deadlifts. And butts. Really round butts. Really round butts that one gets from squatting. You know the butts that I am talking about. The ones that can be viewed in three dimensions in the Cartesian Coordinate System- X, Y, Z. In this instance, I’m particularly referring to the oft sought after Z axis.

 I digress.   

The point of this article isn’t to drive home my healthy obsession with butts or squats. It is also not to point out the fact that most modern diseases and ailments can be healed through consuming copious amounts of fish oil. Truth be told, you cannot fish oil your way out of poor nutrition choices, increased stress levels, lack of sleep, or over-training. The intranetz appears to be inundated with information regarding, well, everything, but specifically fish oil. It irked me to sift through all of the contradictions in each supplement and ensuing misinformation. I am merely here to point out what to look for when purchasing fish oil and, in my opinion, what is the most beneficial form to consume. After spending hours researching and digging through information I nearly drove myself mad and am only slightly less confused as to what is the best fish oil found in nature.

We first need to define omega-3 fatty acids (and mention omega -6 fatty acids) which are often referred to as n-3 (and n-6) fatty acids. They are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in marine and plant oils as well as phytoplankton. These fatty acids are important because they are made into powerful regulatory hormones. Omega 3 fats are converted into anti-inflammatory hormones and omega 6 fats. They are considered essential fatty acids meaning they cannot be synthesized by the human body but are vital for normal metabolism.  All omega 3’s “parent” molecule is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). ALA from plants is converted by animals or fish to the highly anti-inflammatory fatty acids EPA and DHA. Fish metabolize the plant based ALA into a concentrated form of EPA and DHA. Fish oil contains this concentrated form of EPA and DHA which is why fish oil is a potent anti-inflammatory and has such numerous health benefits.

When describing the quality of fish oil, we come across the following terms that have no defined meaning: best, extra-distilled, high-potency, high-quality, pharmaceutical grade, professional grade, pure, purest, ultra-pure. At best, these are all marketing ploys and guarantee you nothing. When you see the term “marine lipids” it means “fish fat”. It does not clarify which fish they are referring to nor does it tell you from where the fish came. When purchasing fish oil you want the bottle to specify what species of fish the oil came from and, if possible, what waters the fish came from. Just like I advise everyone to refrain from purchasing farmed fish for consumption, one should also avoid fish oil from farmed fish. Fish farming is a plentiful source of fish oil and far worse than wild fish oil sources. Wild salmon eat fish, and have dark orange flesh, full of concentrated fish oil. Farmed salmon, on the other hand, are fed "commercial pellets", producing a fish whose flesh must be artificially dyed orange for sale. They are also raised in their own muck and given massive doses of antibiotics that must be used for overcrowding and disease.

The preferred fish you want your fish oil supplement to come from is sardines, anchovies, herring, salmon and tuna- with sardines and anchovies as being the top two.
As a fish oil supplement- and remember we are talking about fish oil and not actually consuming the fish-we can do better than salmon oil. Salmon are high[er] up on the food chain than say, sardines or krill, so there can be a higher risk of contamination from toxins. The most common contaminants found in fish are mercury, PCBs, radioactive substances like strontium, and toxic metals such as lead, arsenic and cadmium. However, it takes a hell of a lot of consumption to have any adverse effects in the average human. And, the benefits of fish and fish oil consumption outweigh the risks associated. Two exceptions to this would be infants and women during pregnancy. is a great website if you would like to see how high your intake of mercury might be.

The name sardine describes several types of small, oily saltwater fish such as herring. sprat, and pilchards.  Cold-water fish, such as sardines, contain the highest amounts of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids. One of the world's first canned foods, the sardine, is rich in phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin B6, and niacin.
Anchovy oil is a good source of several nutrients including calcium, iron, phosphorous, niacin, selenium and protein. I didn’t come across any negative aspects associated with anchovy consumption.

 This now takes us to the next point of discussion- liver oil supplements. These include the most popular, cod liver oil and shark liver oil. The primary benefits of cod liver oil other than omega-3 fatty acids are its naturally high levels of Vitamin A and Vitamin D. The presence of these vitamins is what differentiates cod liver oil from omega 3 fish oil. However, too much Vitamin A (retinol) from cod liver oil has been shown to produce hip fractures in various studies, so for some it might not be a good idea to take cod liver supplements. (1) Side effects of excess Vitamin A include joint aches, abdominal pains, skin rashes, mouth ulcers, and hair loss.
As a result of these findings, it is strongly suggested that a person stay away from cod liver oil if the Vitamin A level is too high. Unless you are looking to get more Vitamin A and D in your diet, most people would be much better off taking an omega 3 fish oil supplement made from fish low on the food chain, such as sardines, mackerel and anchovies. The reason for such small fish is that they accumulate less toxins during their relatively short lifespans.

Leading source of shark oil

Shark liver oil also contains omega-3s, but has other additional benefits like alkylglycerols (AKGs) and squalene. AKGs are taken for colds, flu & chronic infections and have been shown to increase white blood cell count. They’re also taken to speed up wound healing, and to improve inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and asthma. However, since sharks are high up on the food chain, some shark liver oils were found to have high levels of toxic pollutants such as mercury and PCBs -polychlorinated biphenyl.

Next up is krill oil. Some health experts, such as Dr. Joseph Mercola of tout it as being superior to fish oil. Others claim it is way too expensive, and isn’t a very concentrated source of EPA and DHA. Proponents of krill oil claim it is superior to fish oil because it contains phospholipids, antioxidants (about 47 times the level found in fish oil) and omega 3’s bonded together in a way that keeps them safe from oxidation and makes them easily absorbed in your body. Also, your risk of any mercury contamination is extremely low since krill are so small they do not have the chance to accumulate toxins before being harvested.  So which one is better? I don’t know. Science goes both ways. 

My advice is simple. Take them both. Cycle your fish oil  fish liver oil supplements but, more importantly, eat a balanced diet that keeps your omega 3:6 profile to a 1:4 ratio or better. Ideally you want 1:1 but that is tough to attain.

What To Look For In A Fish Oil Supplement:

In order to be safe and to make sure you get all the health benefits of omega 3s in your diet, you should take fish oil supplements that meet the following criteria:

-Your fish oil must list the specific species of fish used to make the oil. Sardines and anchovies are the richest sources followed by salmon and tuna.
-Your fish oil must contain omega 3 fatty acids - not just "fish oil". They are not the same thing.
-Read the labels! It should list the total amount of EPA and DHA. This should add up to the total amount of oils in the product. If they don't, you're being sold a bunch of fillers.
-The fish used for the oil should be health screened and disease free. Make sure that the manufacturer knows exactly where their fish are coming from. Do your research.
-Your fish oil should be guaranteed to be 100% pure. That means absolutely no toxins, heavy metals, or pesticides.

Stay away from fish oil that has been molecularly distilled. The distillation process alters the natural form of the oil. Yes, if done properly  it may remove some of the toxins, but the oil is no longer in its natural state. As a matter of fact, molecular distillation causes the oil to be oxidized which can lead to rancidity. If your fish oil is molecularly distilled, you should be wondering how polluted the fish oil was to start with that they had to use such an aggressive purification process on it.

Fish oil has earned its standing as the hottest supplement on the market because it supplies compounds essential for disease prevention, human development, and increased performance (other than Vitamin D). For maximum results and safety, always take a close look at what you’re buying. This is one supplement where best is the only way to go. I will reiterate a point I made earlier. The benefits of consuming fish oil outweighs any negatives associated with contamination i.e. mercury, PCBs.

 Written for by Dr. Wayne Broth

 Dr. Wayne J. Broth earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Animal Science, pre-veterinary medicine, from Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, and is a graduate from Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida. He was a recipient of the Clinical Excellence Award, Clinical Service Award, nominated for the Virgil Strang Philosophy Award, and also served as a Clinical Teaching Assistant at the Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida outpatient clinic. He obtained certification in electrodiagnosis and acupuncture and completed his clinical internship at the Rhode Island Spine Center under the guidance of renowned physician, Donald R. Murphy, DC, DACAN.

1.       Serum Retinol Levels and the Risk of Fracture. Karl Michaëlsson, M.D., Hans Lithell, M.D., Bengt Vessby, M.D., and Håkan Melhus, M.D. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:287-294.

  .       Vitamin A Intake and Hip Fractures Among Postmenopausal Women. Diane Feskanich, ScD; Vishwa Singh, PhD; Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH; Graham A. Colditz, MD, DrPH. JAMA. 2002;287(1):47-54.

3.       Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rimm, Eric B. (October 2006). "Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits". JAMA 296 (15): 1885–1899.